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Lateral transfer of organophosphate degradation (opd) genes among soil bacteria: mode of transfer and contributions to organismal fitness

Siddavattam, Dayananda, Yakkala, Harshita, Samantarrai, Devyani
Journal of genetics 2019 v.98 no.1 pp. 23
convergent evolution, databases, gain-of-function mutation, genes, half life, horizontal gene transfer, interspersed repetitive sequences, metagenomics, organophosphorus compounds, phosphates, phosphoric triester hydrolases, plasmids, soil, soil bacteria, toxicity
Genes encoding structurally independent phosphotriesterases (PTEs) are identified in soil bacteria. These pte genes, often identified on mobilizable and self-transmissible plasmids are organized as mobile genetic elements. Their dissemination through lateral gene transfer is evident due to the detection of identical organophosphate degradation genes among soil bacteria with little or no taxonomic relationship. Convergent evolution of PTEs provided selective advantages to the bacterial strain as they convert toxic phosphotriesters (PTs) into a source of phosphate. The residues of organophosphate (OP) compounds that accumulate in a soil are proposed to contribute to the evolution of PTEs through substrate-assisted gain-of-function. This review provides comprehensive information on lateral transfer of pte genes and critically examines proposed hypotheses on their evolution in the light of the short half-life of OPs in the environment. The review also proposes alternate factors that have possibly contributed to the evolution and lateral mobility of PTEs by taking into account their biology and analyses of pte genes in genomic and metagenomic databases.