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Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Parameters and Antioxidant Status in Plasma and Erythrocytes of Elderly Diabetic Patients with Sarcopenia

Küçükdiler, A. H. E., Varli, M., Yavuz, Ö., Yalçin, Ahmet, Selvi Öztorun, H., Devrim, E., Aras, S.
The journal of nutrition, health & aging 2019 v.23 no.3 pp. 239-245
antioxidants, at-risk population, bioelectrical impedance, body mass index, catalase, elderly, erythrocytes, gait, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, multivariate analysis, muscle strength, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress, pathogenesis, patients, sarcopenia, skeletal muscle, superoxide dismutase, walking, xanthine oxidase
OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of both sarcopenia and diabetes. Although the risk of sarcopenia is increased in people with type 2 diabetes, the relationship between sarcopenia oxidative stress and antioxidant status among the older diabetes population is not well studied. The aim of this present study was to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress and antioxidant status and sarcopenia in elderly diabetic patients. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional designed study with a control group. A total of 60 type 2 diabetic elderly patients were enrolled in the study (30 sarcopenic and 30 controls). MEASUREMENTS: Comprehensive geriatric assessments and anthropometric measurements were performed. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Skeletal muscle mass was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. A handheld dynamometer was used for skeletal muscle strength measurements. Gait speed was measured using a 4 meter walking test. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and erythrocyte MDA, GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and xanthine oxidase (XO) measurements were performed. RESULTS: While plasma XO was significantly higher in sarcopenic individuals (0.406(0.225-0.775)) compared to controls (0.312(0.112-0.712)) (p=0.006), plasma GSHPx was significantly lower in sarcopenic individuals (0.154(0.101-0.274)) compared to controls (0.204(0.12-.0312)) (p=0.003). Plasma XO (OR: 2.69 (CI 95% 0.13-52.76, p=0.041) and BMI (OR: 0.6 (CI 95% 0.41-0.89, p=0.009) were independently associated with sarcopenia of diabetes in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Only plasma XO was found to be independently associated with sarcopenia. XO can be important in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia in diabetes. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status might be associated with sarcopenia in diabetic older individuals but this association seems to be mediated by other factors. Further studies are needed on this subject.