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Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome: Prevalence and Risk of Cognitive Impairment in a Population Studied in the Mexican Health and Aging Study 2012–2015

Aguilar-Navarro, Sara G., Mimenza-Alvarado, A. J., Aguilar-Esquivel, J. E., Yeverino-Castro, S. G., Juárez-Cedillo, T., Mejía-Arango, S.
The journal of nutrition, health & aging 2019 v.23 no.3 pp. 227-231
cognition, cognitive disorders, comorbidity, diabetes mellitus, elderly, functional status, gait, memory, regression analysis, risk factors, Mexico
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Motoric Cognitive Risk (MCR) syndrome, describe associated risk factors and to determine the risk of progression to cognitive impairment after three years of follow-up, in a sample of Mexican older adults. DESIGN: A prospective panel study of health and aging in Mexico. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Baseline and follow-up information was obtained from the Mexican Health and Aging Study’s 2012 and 2015 waves. A total of 726 subjects aged 60 years or older with normal cognition at baseline were classified into 4 groups: 1) with MCR, 2) with memory complaint only, 3) with slow gait speed only and, 4) without MCR. Cox regression analysis controlling for confounder factors was performed to determine the risk of progression to cognitive impairment in the MCR group. MEASURES: Data such as gait speed, functional status and cognitive performance (standardized by age and sex in Mexican population) was collected. RESULTS: MCR prevalence was 14.3%. When compared with non-MCR subjects, the presence of MCR was associated with older age (p<0.01), lower educational status (p=0.05), having two or more comorbidities (p<0.05) and diabetes mellitus diagnosis (p<0.05). At follow-up and after adjusting for confounders, MCR was associated with a 2.4-fold increased risk (95% CI: 1.28-4.26, p=.000) of cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: MCR syndrome increases the risk of cognitive impairment in Mexican older adults. Simple measurements such as gait evaluation in subjects with memory complaints could allow early identification of those at risk of developing cognitive impairment.