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Development and application of a baculovirus-expressed capsid protein-based indirect ELISA for detection of porcine circovirus 3 IgG antibodies

Zhang, Sujiao, Wang, Dongliang, Jiang, Yifan, Li, Zhoumian, Zou, Yawen, Li, Meng, Yu, Haoyang, Huang, Kun, Yang, Yi, Wang, Naidong
BMC veterinary research 2019 v.15 no.1 pp. 79
Baculoviridae, Porcine circovirus, Porcine circovirus-3, antibodies, antigens, blood serum, boars, capsid, coat proteins, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, genetic vectors, gilts, herds, immunoglobulin G, pathogenesis, piglets, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, serodiagnosis, serological surveys, seroprevalence, sows, suckling, China
BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3), recently widely isolated from pigs with various clinical conditions, is likely globally epidemic. However, development of serological diagnosis for PCV3 in pigs is ongoing. Our objectives were to: 1) establish an indirect ELISA, using PCV3 capsid protein (Cap) prepared by Baculovirus Expression Vector System (BEVS) as a high-quality coating antigen for detection of PCV3-associated antibodies in serum samples; and 2) use this ELISA to conduct a serological survey for PCV3 in various regions of Hunan province, China. RESULTS: The PCV3 positive rate to the ELISA assay (total of 190 serum samples) was higher in sows with reproductive failure compared to healthy sows (34/85, 40.0% versus 30/105, 28.6%), with similar results using qPCR assays. Further, in an additional 1038 serum samples collected from January 2016 to May 2018 in various regions of Hunan province and tested with this established ELISA, 20 to 84% were positive for PCV3 (according to region of sera collection), with high PCV3 seroprevalence (> 50%) in herds in Changde, Hengyang and Yueyang. Moreover, among serum samples from herds in Shaoyang and Changde, PCV3 seroprevalence was higher in sows than in other classes of pigs (i.e., suckling piglets, nursery pigs, gilts, growing-finishing pigs and boars). CONCLUSIONS: We developed a full-length PCV3 Cap-based ELISA using a eukaryotic expression system with excellent potential to elucidate PCV3 epidemiology. Based on this assay, PCV3 has been circulating in Hunan province. PCV3 prevalence was lower in healthy sows than in those with reproductive failure. Further studies are warranted to identify the PCV3 responsible for high seroprevalence in sows and determine pathogenesis of PCV3 in sows with reproductive failure.