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Relationship between wine composition and temperature: Impact on Bordeaux wine typicity in the context of global warming—Review

Drappier, Julie, Thibon, Cécile, Rabot, Amélie, Geny-Denis, Laurence
Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 2019 v.59 no.1 pp. 14-30
Vitis, aromatic compounds, climate change, color, cultivars, enzyme activity, freshness, gene expression, grapes, metabolism, ripening, soil, sugars, temperature, winemaking, wines
Weather conditions throughout the year have a greater influence than other factors (such as soil and cultivars) on grapevine development and berry composition. Temperature affects gene expression and enzymatic activity of primary and secondary metabolism which determine grape ripening and wine characteristics. In the context of the climate change, temperatures will probably rise between 0.3°C and 1.7°C over the next 20 years. They are already rising and the physiology of grapevines is already changing. These modifications exert a profound shift in primary (sugar and organic acid balance) and secondary (phenolic and aromatic compounds) berry metabolisms and the resulting composition of wine. For example, some Bordeaux wines have a tendency toward reduced freshness and a modification of their ruby color. In this context it is necessary to understand the impact of higher temperatures on grape development, harvest procedures, and wine composition in order to preserve the typicity of the wines and to adapt winemaking processes.