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Role of activated charcoal and amino acids in developing an efficient regeneration system for foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.) using leaf base segments

Rathinapriya, Periyasamy, Satish, Lakkakula, Rameshkumar, Ramakrishnan, Pandian, Subramani, Rency, Arockiam Sagina, Ramesh, Manikandan
Physiology and molecular biology of plants 2019 v.25 no.2 pp. 533-548
Setaria italica, activated carbon, arginine, charcoal, cysteine, cytokinins, genetic markers, genetic transformation, genotype, in vitro regeneration, indole acetic acid, leaves, naphthaleneacetic acid, plantlets, proline, protocols, seedlings, shoots, soil, survival rate
An efficacious, reproducible direct in vitro regeneration system has been developed from leaf base segments (LBs) of six high yielding genotypes of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.). LBs excised from 4-day-old seedling were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different types and concentrations of cytokinins. The shoots induced per explant significantly increased with the supplementation of BAP to auxin containing medium. The results showed that a maximum shoot induction, 58.8% was obtained on MS medium incorporated with 8.9 µM BAP and 2.7 µM NAA in ‘CO5’ genotype. Further, the highest frequency of multiple shoots was produced on MS(I) medium containing 8.9 µM BAP, 2.7 µM NAA, 700 mg L⁻¹ proline, 0.5 mg L⁻¹ cysteine, 2.0 mg L⁻¹ glycine and 150 mg L⁻¹ arginine. MS(I) medium additionally fortified with 5.0 g L⁻¹ activated charcoal (AC) was found to achieve the best precocious plant regeneration. Elongated shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium amended with 2.9 µM IAA and achieved maximum root number (8.7) within 10 days. Rooted plantlets were acclimated in soil with 92% survival rate. Molecular marker analysis of in vitro regenerated and field grown plants revealed no somaclonal variations. Briefly, amino acids and activated charcoal could significantly enhance the foxtail millet direct multiple shoot proliferation and plant regeneration. Here we report, a short-term, genotype independent, direct plant regeneration protocol for future genetic transformation studies in foxtail millet genotypes.