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A detection of benzimidazole resistance-associated SNPs in the isotype-1 β-tubulin gene in Haemonchus contortus from wild blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) sympatric with sheep in Helan Mountains, China

Shen, Dong-dong, Peng, Zhi-wei, Hu, Min, Zhang, Zong-ze, Hou, Zhi-jun, Liu, Zhen-sheng
BMC veterinary research 2019 v.15 no.1 pp. 89
Haemonchus contortus, Pseudois nayaur, adults, anthelmintics, benzimidazole, drug resistance, gastrointestinal nematodes, genes, genetic analysis, haplotypes, homozygosity, hosts, mountains, phylogeny, sheep, single nucleotide polymorphism, sympatry, topology, tubulin, China
BACKGROUND: Benzimidazole (BZ) resistance is an increasingly serious problem due to the excessive use of this anthelmintic for controlling Haemonchus contortus, which is one of the major gastrointestinal nematodes infecting small ruminants worldwide. Three known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), F167Y (TAC), E198A (GCA) and F200Y (TAC), in the isotype-1 β-tubulin gene of H. contortus are associated with BZ resistance. Comprehending the spread and origins of BZ resistance-associated SNPs has important implications for the control of this nematode. RESULTS: Twenty-seven adult H. contortus were harvested from wild blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), small wild ruminants sympatric with domestic ruminants, inhabiting the Helan Mountains, China, to monitor the status of BZ resistance. In addition, 20 adult H. contortus from domestic sheep sympatric with this wild ruminant and 36 isotype-1 β-tubulin haplotype sequences of H. contortus (two of these haplotypes, E198A3 and E198A4, possessed resistance-associated SNP E198A (GCA) from domestic ruminants in eight other geographical regions of China were used to further define the origins of BZ resistance-associated SNPs within the worms collected from blue sheep. The BZ resistance-associated SNP E198A was detected, whereas SNPs F167Y (TAC) and F200Y (TAC) were not found within the worms collected from blue sheep, and the frequency of homozygous resistant E198A (GCA) was 7.40%. The evolutionary tree and network showed consistent topologies for which there was no obvious boundary among the worms from the wild and domestic hosts, and two haplotypes (E198A1 and E198A2) possessing E198A from the wild blue sheep had two different independent origins. E198A1 had the same origin with E198A3 but E198A2 had a different origin with them. Population genetic analyses revealed a low level of Fst values (ranging from 0 to 0.19749) between all H. contortus worm groups in China. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the current study of the three BZ resistance-associated SNPs of H. contortus from wild blue sheep suggested that only E198A (GCA) was present within the worms collected from the wild ruminants and had multiple independent origins.