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In vitro salt and thermal tolerance of fungal endophytes of Nicotiana spp. growing in arid regions of north-western Australia
- Dastogeer, Khondoker M. G., Li, Hua, Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai, Wylie, Stephen J.
- Archiv für Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz 2018 v.51 no.11-12 pp. 602-616
- Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium, Nicotiana, Trichoderma, arid zones, calcium chloride, endophytes, fungi, heat tolerance, magnesium chloride, magnesium sulfate, plant adaptation, potassium chloride, salt tolerance, sodium chloride, temperature, Australia
- Endophytic fungal strains isolated from indigenous Nicotiana plants naturally growing in dry and hot regions of north-western Australia were characterised based on their tolerance to salinity and temperature. Sixty-eight fungal isolates were tested on eight levels (0.5 M, 1.0 M, 1.5 M, 2.0 M, 2.5 M, 3.0 M, 3.5 M and 4.0 M) of five different of salts solutions NaCl, KCl, MgCl₂, CaCl₂ and MgSO₄ and at various temperatures (25–50 °C). The salt adaptation test indicated that the fungal strains namely Aspergillus niger (E-202), A. ochraceous-A (E-134), Aurantiporus sp. (E-135), Cladosporium halotolerance (E-128), Pleurostomophora richardsiae (E-13) and Trichoderma sp. (E-185.1) were tolerant to higher concentrations of various salts. The most growth-limiting salt turned out to be MgCl₂ followed by the chaotrope CaCl₂. Responses to temperature tolerance revealed that most fungi tested could grow at 30 °C. About 50% all the fungi did not show any growth when the temperature was raised above 30 °C. When the temperature was raised up to 50 °C all the fungi failed to grow but the fungus Rasamsonia piperina (E-172). Endophyte strains identified could be promising candidates for future research in investigating the fungus–plant interactions and their roles in plant adaptation to inhospitable environments.