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(2,5-Dioxoimidazolidin-4-ylidene)aminocarbonylcarbamic Acid as a Precursor of Parabanic Acid, the Singlet Oxygen-Specific Oxidation Product of Uric Acid
- Sayaka Iida, Yorihiro Yamamoto, Akio Fujisawa
- Journal of organic chemistry 2019 v.84 no.6 pp. 3552-3558
- chemical structure, high performance liquid chromatography, hydrolysates, mass spectrometry, organic chemistry, oxidation, oxygen, singlet oxygen, stable isotopes, uric acid
- Previously, we identified that parabanic acid (PA) and its hydrolysate, oxaluric acid (OUA), are the singlet oxygen-specific oxidation products of uric acid (UA). In this study, we investigated the PA formation mechanism by using HPLC and a time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique and identified unknown intermediates as (2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-ylidene)aminocarbonylcarbamic acid (DIAA), dehydroallantoin, and 4-hydroxyallantoin (4-HAL). DIAA is the key to PA production, and its formation pathway was characterized using ¹⁸O₂ and H₂¹⁸O. Two oxygen atoms were confirmed to be incorporated into DIAA: the 5-oxo- oxygen from singlet oxygen and the carboxylic oxygen from water. Isolated DIAA and 4-HAL gave PA stoichiometrically. A plausible reaction scheme in which two pathways branch out from DIAA is presented, and the potential for PA as an endogenous probe for biological formation of singlet oxygen is discussed.