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The novel protective effects of loganin against 1‐methyl‐4‐phenylpyridinium‐induced neurotoxicity: Enhancement of neurotrophic signaling, activation of IGF‐1R/GLP‐1R, and inhibition of RhoA/ROCK pathway
- Tseng, Yu‐Ting, Lin, Wan‐Jung, Chang, Wan‐Hsuan, Lo, Yi‐Ching
- Phytotherapy research 2019 v.33 no.3 pp. 690-701
- Cornus officinalis, Parkinson disease, antagonists, apoptosis, cytotoxicity, fruits, glucagon-like peptide receptors, insulin-like growth factor I receptor, loganin, models, neurites, neuroprotective effect, neurotoxicity, osteoporosis, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase
- Loganin, a major iridoid glycoside obtained from fruits of Cornus officinalis, possesses anti‐inflammatory, antitumor, antidiabetic, and osteoporosis prevention effects. Loganin has been linked to neuroprotection in several models of neurodegeneration, including Parkinson's disease (PD). However, mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of loganin are still mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrated the protective effects of loganin against PD mimetic toxin 1‐methyl‐4‐phenylpyridinium (MPP⁺) and the important roles of insulin‐like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF‐1R) and glucagon‐like peptide 1 receptor (GLP‐1R) in the neuroprotective mechanisms of loganin. In primary mesencephalic neuronal cultures treated with or without MPP⁺, loganin up‐regulated expressions of neurotrophic signals including IGF‐1R, GLP‐1R, p‐Akt, BDNF, and tyrosine hydroxylase. Loganin protected against MPP⁺‐induced apoptosis by up‐regulating antiapoptotic protein and down‐regulating proapoptotic protein. Moreover, loganin attenuated MPP⁺‐induced neurite damage via up‐regulation of GAP43 and down‐regulation of membrane‐RhoA/ROCK2/p‐LIMK/p‐cofilin. Loganin also attenuated MPP⁺‐induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, both AG1024, an IGF‐1R antagonist, and exendin 9‐39, a GLP‐1R antagonist, attenuated the protective effects of loganin on MPP⁺‐induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis, neurite length decrease, and ROS production. Our results suggest that loganin attenuates MPP⁺‐induced apoptotic death, neurite damage, and oxidative stress through enhancement of neurotrophic signaling, activation of IGF‐1R/GLP‐1R, and inhibition of RhoA/ROCK pathway, providing the evidence that loganin possesses novel neuroprotective effects.