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Citrus x aurantium essential oil as feed additive improved growth performance, survival, metabolic, and oxidative parameters of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)

Lopes, Jane Mello, de Freitas Souza, Carine, Saccol, Etiane Medianeira Hundertmarck, Pavanato, Maria Amália, Antoniazzi, Alfredo, Rovani, Monique Tomazele, Heinzmann, Berta Maria, Baldisserotto, Bernardo
Aquaculture nutrition 2019 v.25 no.2 pp. 310-318
Citrus aurantium, Rhamdia quelen, antioxidant activity, dietary supplements, enzyme activity, essential oils, feed additives, fish, glucose, glutathione transferase, growth performance, lactic acid, lipid peroxidation, lipid peroxides, liver, muscles, protein content, superoxide dismutase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, thiols
The effects of dietary supplementation of graded level (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml/kg diet) of Citrus aurantium essential oil (EOCA) on the growth, metabolic, and oxidative parameters of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) were investigated in a 60‐day growth trial. Fish fed with 2.0 ml EOCA per kg exhibited significantly better growth performance than those fed the control diet. Glucose, lactate, and protein levels in liver and muscle were altered significantly by dietary addition of EOCA. Hepatic lipid peroxidation levels, measured using thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and lipid hydroperoxides assays, were reduced in animals receiving the diet containing EOCA. Superoxide dismutase activity was higher, while glutathione S‐transferase activity was lower in the liver of fish receiving 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml EOCA per kg of diet than in control. The nonprotein thiols content was higher in fish receiving the EOCA‐containing diet. Thus, dietary addition of EOCA improved growth, biochemical, and antioxidant parameters in silver catfish and could be useful as dietary supplement.