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Epidemiological investigation of the novel genotype avian hepatitis E virus and co‐infected immunosuppressive viruses in farms with hepatic rupture haemorrhage syndrome, recently emerged in China

Su, Qi, Zhang, Yawen, Li, Yang, Cui, Zhizhong, Chang, Shuang, Zhao, Peng
Transboundary and emerging diseases 2019 v.66 no.2 pp. 776-784
Adenoviridae, Avian hepatitis E virus, Avian leukosis virus, Chicken anemia virus, Reticuloendotheliosis virus, chickens, emerging diseases, epidemiological studies, farms, financial economics, genotype, hemorrhage, immunosuppression, liver, mixed infection, phylogeny, vaccines, virology, viruses, China
Since 2016, hepatic rupture haemorrhage syndrome (HRHS) appeared in chickens of China and caused huge economic loss. To assess the infection status of the avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) and co‐infected viruses, including avian leukosis virus (ALV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), fowl adenovirus (FAdV), and chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV), in farms with HRHS, 180 liver samples were collected from 24 farms in different provinces and detected by strict molecular virology methods. Results showed that the positive rates of HEV, ALV, REV, FAdV, and CIAV were 74.44%, 20.00%, 27.78%, 31.11%, and 12.22%, respectively, whereas there are also 112 samples with co‐infection, for a rate of 58%. Meanwhile, the positive rate of HEV decreased gradually with age; the lowest positive rate of ALV (5.76%) and REV (19.23%) appeared in 25–35 weeks age, during which the positive rate of CIAV was the highest (19.23%); the positive rate of HEV in layers (64.00%) was lower than that of broilers (83.33%), but the positive rates of ALV (38.46%) and CIAV (15.38%) in layers were higher than that of broilers (5.88%, 9.80%); the positive rates of HEV (75.88%) and CIAV (15.60%) in parental generation (PG) were higher than that of commodity generation (CG, 64.10%, 0.00%), whereas the positive rate of ALV showed inverse relationship (PG: 14.89%; CG: 38.46%). Additionally, phylogenetic analysis showed that all the avian HEV identified this study belong to a novel genotype, and found the close relationship between the wild strains (REV and CIAV) and corresponding isolates from contaminated vaccine. The data presented in this report will enhance the current understanding of the epidemiology characteristics in farms with HRHS in China.