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Applications of cellulose and chitin/chitosan derivatives and composites as antibacterial materials: current state and perspectives

Khattak, Shahia, Wahid, Fazli, Liu, Ling-Pu, Jia, Shi-Ru, Chu, Li-Qiang, Xie, Yan-Yan, Li, Zi-Xuan, Zhong, Cheng
Applied microbiology and biotechnology 2019 v.103 no.5 pp. 1989-2006
antibacterial properties, antibiotics, bacterial infections, biodegradability, biopolymers, cationization, cellulose, chitin, chitosan, mechanical properties, nanoparticles, public health, solubility, solvents, toxicity
The bacterial infections have always a serious problem to public health. Scientists are developing new antibacterial materials to overcome this problem. Polysaccharides are promising biopolymers due to their diverse biological functions, low toxicity, and high biodegradability. Chitin and chitosan have antibacterial properties due to their cationic nature, while cellulose/bacterial cellulose does not possess any antibacterial activity. Moreover, the insolubility of chitin in common solvents, the poor solubility of chitosan in water, and the low mechanical properties of chitosan have restricted their biomedical applications. In order to solve these problems, chemical modifications such as quaternization, carboxymethylation, cationization, or surface modification of these polymers with different antimicrobial agents, including metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, are carried out to obtain new materials with improved physiochemical and biological properties. This mini review describes the recent progress in such derivatives and composites with potential antibacterial applications.