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Genetic evolutionary analysis of soybean mosaic virus populations from three geographic locations in China based on the P1 and CP genes

Zhang, Lei, Shang, Jing, Jia, Qi, Li, Kai, Yang, Hui, Liu, Huanhuan, Tang, Zhongqin, Chang, Xiaoli, Zhang, Min, Wang, Wenming, Yang, Wenyu
Archives of virology 2019 v.164 no.4 pp. 1037-1048
Soybean mosaic virus, Watermelon mosaic virus, coat proteins, gene flow, genes, genetic variation, genomics, pathogens, phylogeny, population dynamics, provenance, soybeans, China
Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the major pathogens causing serious soybean losses. Little is known about the genetic structure and evolutionary biology of the SMV population in southwestern China. In this study, 29 SMV isolates were obtained from Sichuan Province, and the genomic regions encoding the first protein (P1) and coat protein (CP) were sequenced. Combined with SMV isolates from the southeastern and northeastern regions of China, the genetic and molecular evolution of SMV was studied. Recombination analysis revealed that intraspecific and interspecific recombination had occurred in the SMV population. A phylogenetic tree based on the P1 gene reflected the geographic origin of the non-interspecific recombinant SMV (SMV-NI), while a tree based on the CP gene did not. Though frequent gene flow of the SMV-NI populations was found between the southeastern and northeastern populations, the southwestern population was relatively independent. Genetic differentiation was significant between the SMV interspecific recombinant (SMV-RI) and the non-interspecific recombinant (SMV-NI) populations. It was interesting to note that there was an almost identical recombination breakpoint in SMV-RI and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV). Population dynamics showed that SMV-RI might be in an expanding state, while the SMV-NI population is relatively stable.