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Growth factors affecting gas production and reduction potential of vegetative cell and spore inocula of dairy-related Clostridium species

Silvetti, Tiziana, Morandi, Stefano, Brasca, Milena
Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + [i.e. und] Technologie 2018 v.92 pp. 32-39
Clostridium beijerinckii, Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium tyrobutyricum, acidity, cheeses, flavor, growth factors, inoculum, milk, osmotic stress, pH, salt concentration, sodium chloride, spore germination, spores, temperature, texture, vegetative cells
Cheese late blowing defect caused by the Clostridium growth results in flavour and texture flaws and huge economical losses. The aim of this study was to evaluate simultaneously the influence of pH (6.50, 5.75, 5.00), NaCl (0, 1, 2, 4%) and temperature (10, 12, 15, 20, 37 °C) on gas production and reduction potential (Eh) of vegetative cell and spore inocula of dairy related clostridia (Clostridium beijerinckii, C. butyricum, C. sporogenes and C. tyrobutyricum). Clostridia showed a high reduction capacity in milk (Eh7min < −280 mV in 24 h). Spores exposed to harsh environment generated cells less sensitive to adverse conditions. A temperature ≤15 °C was effective in preventing the gas formation by vegetative cells for over 70 days, but a combination of temperature ≤15 °C, pH ≤ 5.00 and osmotic stress (NaCl 2%) or a temperature ≤ 10 °C was necessary to avoid spores outgrowth and gas production.Gas production resulting from C. tyrobutyricum spore germination and growth was not affected by acidity and salt concentration at 20 °C. Some strains of C. sporogenes were capable of producing gas even at 12 °C, pH 5.00 and 1% of NaCl. A ripening temperature below 10 °C represents a potential strategy to prevent LBD occurrence.