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Partial replacement of wheat flour by pecan nut expeller meal on bakery products. Effect on muffins quality
- Marchetti, L., Califano, A.N., Andrés, S.C.
- Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + [i.e. und] Technologie 2018 v.95 pp. 85-91
- baking quality, byproducts, color, financial economics, food industry, hardness, hedonic scales, image analysis, microstructure, muffins, oils, pecans, texture, wheat flour
- The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of replacing up to 40 g/100 g wheat flour by pecan nut expeller meal on baking quality of a typical muffin formulation. Baked samples were subjected to several assays: yield, height of the specimen, color, crumb moisture, texture (TPA), microstructure by image analysis. Replacement of 30 g/100 g of wheat flour by expeller significantly height of the product. Also hardness was greatly reduced (52.4%) when 30 g/100 g of PEM was included. The addition of PEM lead to a darker crumb, the browning index was 38% higher when 40 g/100 g of wheat flour was replaced by expeller. Muffins showed a very good sensorial acceptance, scoring 7.9 into a 9-point hedonic scale. Thus a by-product from pecan oil industry was successfully employed in muffins, adding value, and broadening its potential applications in other bakery products, resulting in economic benefits.