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Glaucoma: Current treatment and impact of advanced drug delivery systems

Yadav, Khushwant S., Rajpurohit, Rahul, Sharma, Sushmita
Life sciences 2019
bioavailability, blindness, dendrimers, drug delivery systems, drugs, eyes, glaucoma, humans, hydrogels, lipids, nanoparticles, niosomes, toxicity
The human eye being a complex and a very sensitive organ makes the drug delivery task challenging. An increase in the intra-ocular pressure at the aqueous humour leads to glaucoma which is not only indecipherable but can also be the reason of blindness for many. The presently available marketed formulations using anti-glaucoma drugs have issues of either difficulty in crossing the blood- retinal barrier or lower systemic bioavailability. Hence, the drugs having lower therapeutic index would need to be administered frequently, which eventually lead to deposition of concentrated solutions at ocular site, producing toxic effects and cellular damage to the eye. To overcome these drawbacks the novel drug delivery systems like In-situ gels, liposomes, niosomes, hydrogel, dendrimers, nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, Microneedles or ocular inserts play an important role to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of the anti-glaucomic drugs. The present review briefs the current treatments in terms of drugs used and in detail the impact of utilizing the above mentioned novel drug delivery systems in the treatment of glaucoma.