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Phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of organic and inorganic pollutants rich tannery wastewater from a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) in Unnao district, India using Vigna radiata and Allium cepa
- Yadav, Ashutosh, Raj, Abhay, Purchase, Diane, Ferreira, Luiz Fernando R., Saratale, Ganesh Dattatraya, Bharagava, Ram Naresh
- Chemosphere 2019 v.224 pp. 324-332
- Allium cepa, Vigna radiata, benzoic acid, biochemical oxygen demand, chromosome elimination, chromosomes, cytotoxicity, dibutyl phthalate, fauna, flora, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, genotoxicity, leather industry, phytotoxicity, pollutants, resorcinol, root tips, seed germination, stickiness, tanneries, wastewater, India
- The leather industry is a major source of environmental pollution in India. The wastewater generated by leather industries contains very high pollution parameters due to the presence of a complex mixture of organic and inorganic pollutants even after the treatment at a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) and disturbs the ecological flora and fauna. The nature, characteristics and toxicity of CETP treated wastewater is yet to be fully elucidated. Thus, this study aims to characterize and evaluate the toxicity of CETP treated tannery wastewater collected from the Unnao district of Uttar Pradesh, India. In addition to measuring the physico-chemical parameters, the residual organic pollutants was identified by GC-MS analysis and phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the treated wastewater was evaluated using Vigna radiata L. and Allium cepa L. Results showed that the treated wastewater contained very high pollution parameters (TDS 3850 mg/L, BOD 680 mg/L, COD-1300 mg/L). GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of various types of residual organic pollutants including benzoic acid, 3-[4,-(T-butyl) Phenyl] furan-2-5-dione, benzeneacetamide, resorcinol, dibutyl phthalate, and benzene-1,2,4-triol. Further, toxicological studies showed the phytotoxic nature of the wastewater as it inhibited seed germination in V. radiata L. and root growth of A. cepa. Genotoxicity was evidenced in the root tip cell of A. cepa where chromosomal aberrations (stickiness, chromosome loss, C-mitosis, and vagrant chromosome) and nuclear abnormalities like micronucleated and binucleated cells were observed. Thus, results suggested that it is not safe to discharge these wastewater into the environment.