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Biochars reduced the bioaccessibility and (bio)uptake of organochlorine pesticides and changed the microbial community dynamics in agricultural soils

Ali, Neelum, Khan, Sardar, Yao, Huaiying, Wang, Juan
Chemosphere 2019 v.224 pp. 805-815
Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chinese cabbage, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, agricultural soils, bioaccumulation, bioavailability, biochar, community structure, green onions, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, microbial communities, neoplasms, organochlorine pesticides, peanut hulls, polluted soils, rice straw, risk, risk assessment, sewage sludge, soil amendments, soil microorganisms, sorbents, soybeans, vegetable yield
Biochar is considered as a universal sorbent used for soil amendment but its impacts on organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and microbial communities associated with soil and vegetables are unclear. The effects of different biochars (derived from sewage sludge biochar (SSBC), soybean straw biochar (SBBC), rice straw biochar (RSBC) and peanut shells biochar (PNBC)), on bioaccessible fractions of OCPs in a contaminated soil and their subsequent bioaccumulation into vegetables (Chinese cabbage and spring onion) were investigated in this research work. The influence of these amendments on vegetable yields and soil microbial community using Illumina next generation sequencing technology was also assessed. The application of selected biochars significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the bioaccessibility of ∑OCPs in contaminated soil: SSBC (52%), PNBC (51%), RSBC (60%), and SBBC (47%), as compared to the control. The results indicated that following biochar additions, the bio-uptake of ∑OCP bio-uptake was considerably (from 86 to 85%) reduced in grown vegetables. Risk assessment showed that biochar amendments markedly (p < 0.01) decreased the hazard quotient (HQ) indices and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILTR) values for OCPs associated with the consumption of vegetables. In addition, the results of high-throughput sequencing showed significant differences in microbial community structure between the treatments, which was driven by differences in the relative abundances of soil microbes. The relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Nitrospirae and Verrucomicrobia decreased following biochar additions. However, biochar amendments increased the relative abundances of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Gemmatimonadetes, though the increase in relative abundances of these phyla was strongly dependent on the type of biochar used.