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An insight into the mechanism of antifungal activity of biogenic nanoparticles than their chemical counterparts

Kumari, Madhuree, Giri, Ved P., Pandey, Shipra, Kumar, Manoj, Katiyar, Ratna, Nautiyal, Chandra S., Mishra, Aradhana
Pesticide biochemistry and physiology 2019 v.157 pp. 45-52
Alternaria brassicicola, Fusarium oxysporum, Trichoderma viride, antifungal properties, cell death, death, drug resistance, enzymes, filtrates, fungi, nanoparticles, nanosilver, nitroblue tetrazolium, pathogens, propidium, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, scanning electron microscopy, staining, stress response, superoxide anion, virulence
Herein, we describe the enhanced antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized by cell free filtrate of Trichoderma viride (MTCC 5661) in comparison to chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (CSNP) of similar shape and size. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (BSNP) enhanced the reduction in dry weight by 20 and 48.8% of fungal pathogens Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria brassicicola respectively in comparison to their chemical counterparts (CSNP). Nitroblue tetrazolium and Propidium iodide staining demonstrated the higher generation of superoxide radicals lead to higher death in BSNP treated fungus in comparison to CSNP. Scanning electron microscopy of A. brassicicola revealed the osmotic imbalance and membrane disintegrity to be major cause for fungal cell death after treatment with BSNP. To gain an insight into the mechanistic aspect of enhanced fungal cell death after treatment of BSNP in comparison to CSNP, stress responses and real time PCR analysis was carried out with A. brassicicola. It revealed that generation of ROS, downregulation of antioxidant machinery and oxidative enzymes, disruption of osmotic balance and cellular integrity, and loss of virulence are the mechanisms employed by BSNP which establishes them as superior antifungal agent than their chemical counterparts. With increasing drug resistance and ubiquitous presence of fungal pathogens in plant kingdom, BSNP bears the candidature for new generation of antifungal agent.