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Changes in heavy metal bioavailability and speciation from a Pb-Zn mining soil amended with biochars from co-pyrolysis of rice straw and swine manure

Meng, Jun, Tao, Mengming, Wang, Lili, Liu, Xingmei, Xu, Jianming
The Science of the total environment 2018 v.633 pp. 300-307
ash content, bioavailability, biochar, cadmium, calcium chloride, chemical speciation, copper, electrical conductivity, heavy metals, lead, organic carbon, pig manure, polluted soils, pyrolysis, rice straw, soil amendments, soil pH, zinc
Biochar has been utilized as a good amendment to immobilize heavy metals in contaminated soils. However, the effectiveness of biochar in metal immobilization depends on biochar properties and metal species. In this study, the biochars produced from co-pyrolysis of rice straw with swine manure at 400°C were investigated to evaluate their effects on bioavailability and chemical speciation of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in a Pb-Zn contaminated soil through incubation experiment. Results showed that co-pyrolysis process significantly change the yield, ash content, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of the blended biochars compared with the single straw/manure biochar. The addition of these biochars significantly increased the soil pH, EC, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. The addition of biochars at a rate of 3% significantly reduced the CaCl2-extractable metal concentrations in the order of Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd. The exchangeable heavy metals decreased in all the biochar-amended soils whereas the carbonate-bound metal speciation increased. The increase in soil pH and the decrease in the CaCl2 extractable metals indicated that these amendments can directly transform the highly availability metal speciation to the stable speciation in soils. In conclusion, biochar derived from co-pyrolysis of rice straw with swine manure at a mass ratio of 3:1 could most effectively immobilize the heavy metals in the soil.