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Predicting field weed emergence with empirical models and soft computing techniques
- J. L. GONZALEZ-ANDUJAR, G. R. CHANTRE, C. MORVILLO, A. M. BLANCO, F. FORCELLA
- Weed research 2016 v.56 no.6 pp. 415-423
- computer techniques, light, models, phenology, prediction, seedling emergence, soil water, solar radiation, temperature, weed control, weeds
- Seedling emergence is the most important phenological process that influences the success of weed species; therefore, predicting weed emergence timing plays a critical role in scheduling weed management measures. Important efforts have been made in the attempt to develop models to predict seedling emergence patterns for weed species under field conditions. Empirical emergence models have been the most common tools used for such purpose. They are based mainly on the use of temperature, soil moisture and light. In this review, we present the more popular empirical models, highlight some statistical and biological limitations that could affect their predictive accuracy and, finally we present a new generation of modeling approaches to tackle the problems of conventional empirical models, focusing mainly on soft computing techniques. We hope that this review will inspire weed modelers and that it will serve as a basis for discussion and as a frame of reference when we proceed to advance the modelling of field weed emergence.