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NH4+ facilitates iron reutilization in the cell walls of rice (Oryza sativa) roots under iron-deficiency conditions

Zhu, Chun Quan, Zhang, Jun Hua, Zhu, Lian Feng, Abliz, Buhailiqem, Zhong, Chu, Bai, Zhi Gang, Hu, Wen Jun, Sajid, Hussain, James, Allen Bohr, Cao, Xiao Chuang, Jin, Qian Yu
Environmental and experimental botany 2018 v.151 pp. 21-31
Oryza sativa, ammonium, cell walls, chlorosis, cultivars, hemicellulose, iron, nitrates, nitric oxide, nitrogen, nitroprusside, nutrient deficiencies, nutrients, phenolic compounds, putrescine, rice, roots, secretion, soil, xylem
NH4+ and NO3− are two major nitrogen sources that differentially affect the uptake and transfer of other nutrients in rice (Oryza sativa), although their effects on Fe remobilization under Fe-starvation conditions are largely unknown. Here, by investigating the rice cultivar ‘Kasalath’ (Kas), which is tolerant of nutrient-deficient soil, we found that NH4+ negatively regulates the hemicellulose 1 content in root cell walls and stimulates the secretion of phenolic compounds from roots under −Fe conditions, thus facilitating the release of cell wall Fe and increasing soluble Fe levels in roots. NH4+ significantly increased the translocation of Fe from root to shoot by upregulating the expression of OsFRDL1 in roots and increasing the Fe content in the xylem. We further found that the higher putrescine content in rice roots under NH4+ conditions led to a higher nitric oxide (NO) content compared with NO3− conditions, and that NO is involved in the NH4+-stimulated cell wall Fe reutilization. The addition of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside significantly reduced the hemicellulose 1 content in cell walls and increased Fe release from cell walls, ultimately increasing the soluble Fe content in rice and alleviating chlorosis under −Fe conditions. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that NH4+ promotes Fe remobilization from the cell wall in rice.