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Functional identification of apple on MdHIR4 in biotic stress

Zhao, Xian-Yan, Qi, Chen-Hui, Jiang, Han, Zheng, Peng-Fei, Zhong, Ming-Shuang, Zhao, Qiang, You, Chun-Xiang, Li, Yuan-Yuan, Hao, Yu-Jin
Plant science 2019 v.283 pp. 396-406
Arabidopsis, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Malus domestica, Nicotiana benthamiana, Pseudomonas syringae, amino acids, apples, biotic stress, callus, cell nucleus, disease resistance, flagellin, genes, jasmonic acid, leaves, methyl jasmonate, pathogens, salicylic acid, signal transduction, stress response, tobacco, tomatoes, transcription (genetics), transgenic plants
In plants, hypersensitive-induced reaction (HIR) proteins are involved in stress responses, especially biotic stress. However, the potential molecular mechanisms of HIR-mediated biotic resistance in plants are rarely reported. We found that apple (Malus domestica) MdHIR4 was localized in the cell nucleus and membrane similar to AtHIR1 in Arabidopsis. Moreover, salicylic acid and the bacterial flagellin flg22 (a conserved, 22-amino acid motif), which are relevant to biotic stress, could induce MdHIR4 expression. Additionally, the transcription level of MdHIR4 was increased by Methyl jasmonate treatment. Ectopic expression of MdHIR4 in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana reduced sensitivity to Methyl jasmonate and enhanced resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pst DC3000 (Pseudomonas syringae tomato DC3000). The interaction between MdHIR4 and AtJAZs proteins (AtJAZ3, AtJAZ4, and AtJAZ9) implied that MdHIR4 participated in the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway. We found the expression of JA-related genes and PRs to change in transgenic plants, further demonstrating that MdHIR4 mediated biotic stress through the JA signaling pathway. Repressing the expression of MdHIR4 in apple leaves and calli increased resistance to Botryosphaeria dothidea by influencing the transcription of resistance-related genes. Our findings reveal the resistant function to biotic stress of MdHIR4 in transgenic plants, including Arabidopsis, tobacco, and apple, and identify the regulating mechanism of MdHIR4-related biotic resistance.