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A comprehensive investigation on biomass solid waste conversion to a novel catalyst for hydrothermal production of bio-fuel feedstock

El Saied, Mohamed, El Naggar, Ahmed M.A., Elhosiny, F.I., El kady, Fathy Y.
Journal of cleaner production 2019 v.218 pp. 157-166
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, activated carbon, biofuels, biomass, burning, carbon dioxide, catalysts, feedstocks, glucose, greenhouse gases, methane, nitrogen, solid wastes, sulfonic acid, temperature, texture, thermal properties, thermogravimetry, transmission electron microscopy
Biomass based waste can generally be harmful if unused since it naturally decomposes and emits greenhouse gases. In addition, the disposal of these types of waste by burning usually produces carbon dioxide. Both the greenhouse gases and the carbon dioxide will in turn accumulate in the eco system and seriously impact the surrounding environment. Nevertheless, such types of waste can be beneficial if thermally treated in controlled procedures. In line with this trend, this study is directed toward the conversion of some types of solid waste into activated carbons. Different parameters namely; type of chemical activator, temperature and time of reaction as well as the rate of nitrogen gas flow, are studied during the production of activated carbons structures. Optimization of the most proper type of waste (among the tested samples) in producing activated carbon, based on the collected surface characteristics of Brinier–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, was determined at the first place. The texture, structural and thermal characteristics of the optimized activated carbon and its sub-driven acid sites (tri-fluoro methane sulfonic acid) attached structure were determined via the different tools of analysis. In practical, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) were utilized during the characterization of both blank and functionalized activated carbons. These two structures were then applied as catalysts for the production of bio-fuel start material (glucose) from waste cellulose. Comparable conversion rates, came up to 56%, could be attained by the utilized catalysts in this study with a promising selectivity towards the glucose production.