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Vertical response of microbial community and degrading genes to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in saline alkaline soil

Liu, Qinglong, Tang, Jingchun, Liu, Xiaomei, Song, Benru, Zhen, Meinan, Ashbolt, Nicholas J.
Journal of environmental sciences (China) 2019 v.81 pp. 80-92
Alcanivorax, Aspergillus, Bacteroidetes, Fusarium, Lactococcus, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, alkaline soils, alkanes, anaerobes, anaerobic conditions, bacteria, bioremediation, clay fraction, fungi, genes, microbial communities, oil fields, petroleum, soil salinity
A column microcosm was conducted by amending crude oil into Dagang Oilfield soil to simulate the bioremediation process. The dynamic change of microbial communities and metabolic genes in vertical depth soil from 0 to 80 cm were characterized to evaluate the petroleum degradation potential of indigenous microorganism. The influence of environmental variables on the microbial responds to petroleum contamination were analyzed. Degradation extent of 42.45% of n-alkanes (C8–C40) and 34.61% of 16ΣPAH were reached after 22 weeks. Relative abundance of alkB, nah, and phe gene showed about 10-fold increment in different depth of soil layers. Result of HTS profiles demonstrated that Pseudomonas, Marinobacter and Lactococcus were the major petroleum-degrading bacteria in 0–30 and 30–60 cm depth of soils. Fusarium and Aspergillus were the dominant oil-degrading fungi in the 0–60 cm depth of soils. In 60–80 cm deep soil, anaerobic bacteria such as Bacteroidetes, Lactococcus, and Alcanivorax played important roles in petroleum degradation. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and correlation analysis demonstrated that petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) as well as soil salinity, clay content, and anaerobic conditions were the dominant effect factors on microbial community compositions in 0–30, 30–60, and 60–80 cm depth of soils, respectively.