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Multifunctional peptides for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: A new concept in the area of bioactive food-derived peptides

Lammi, Carmen, Aiello, Gilda, Boschin, Giovanna, Arnoldi, Anna
Journal of functional foods 2019 v.55 pp. 135-145
Lupinus, adverse effects, antioxidants, cardiovascular diseases, cumin, disease prevention, egg yolk, lentils, milk, milk proteins, polypeptides, protein hydrolysates, rice bran, soybeans
Bioactive peptides derived from food proteins are increasingly recognized as useful tools for improving health. In this dynamic field, multifunctional peptides represent an emerging area: this definition indicates those peptides which have the capacity to impart more than one physiological outcome by affecting different targets. They may be considered an improvement in respect to monofunctional peptides, owing to lower negative side effects and reduced costs. This review discusses the current information on multifunctional peptides useful in the area of cardiovascular disease prevention. Hypocholesterolemic/anti-diabetic peptides were identified in soybean and lupin protein hydrolysates, whereas hypotensive/anti-diabetic peptides in milk proteins hydrolysate. Antioxidant peptides with at least another biological activity (hypotensive peptides, anti-diabetic and hypocholesterolemic) were purified from hempseed, lentils, rice bran, milk, egg yolk, and cumin protein hydrolysates. The polypeptide lunasin is hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. Finally, the current hurdles in view of their practical exploitation are discussed in detail.