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Application of waste peanut shells to form activated carbon and its utilization for the removal of Acid Yellow 36 from wastewater

Garg, Deepak, Kumar, Shashi, Sharma, Komal, Majumder, C.B.
Groundwater for sustainable development 2019 v.8 pp. 512-519
activated carbon, adsorbents, adsorption, agricultural wastes, data analysis, dyes, endothermy, groundwater, models, nitrogen, pH, peanut hulls, phosphoric acid, pyrolysis, sorption isotherms, sustainable development, thermodynamics, wastewater
A low cost activated carbon was prepared from agricultural waste, peanut shells (PnsAC), using H3PO4 followed by pyrolysis at 650 °C under nitrogen environment and used as a precursor to remove Acid Yellow 36 (AY-36) dye from wastewater. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH (2–11), adsorbent dose (2–6 g L−1), and initial AY-36 concentration (100–250 mg L−1). Equilibrium adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics were investigated. The experimental data were analyzed using isotherm models Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich – Peterson, Sip, and Toth. The kinetics of dye adsorptive removal was studied with pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intra-particle diffusion model. Equilibrium study revealed that Freundlich isotherm model described best the experimental data. The kinetics of dye adsorption was found to conform to the pseudo-second-order kinetics with a correlation coefficient value of 0.999. Thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. Overall, results obtained indicated that the chemisorption likely dominated the adsorption of AY-36 on PnsAC.