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In Vivo Imaging of Endogenously Produced HClO in Zebrafish and Mice Using a Bright, Photostable Ratiometric Fluorescent Probe
- Duan, Chong, Won, Miae, Verwilst, Peter, Xu, Junchao, Kim, Hyeong Seok, Zeng, Lintao, Kim, Jong Seung
- Analytical chemistry 2019 v.91 no.6 pp. 4172-4178
- Danio rerio, biocompatibility, fluorescence, fluorescent dyes, human cell lines, image analysis, mice, monitoring, oxidation, photobleaching, photostability, signal-to-noise ratio
- A high brightness red fluorescent probe (S-BODIPY) has been developed for the sensitive and specific imaging of HClO/ClO– in vitro and in vivo. This probe exhibits some distinctive features such as excellent resistance to photobleaching, a high fluorescence brightness, high selectivity, as well as a good biocompatibility. Upon oxidation of the thio-ether group into sulfoxide, the probe showed a noticeable ratiometric fluorescence response toward ClO– with fast response (within 30 s) and a low detection limit (59 nM). The probe demonstrated the successful imaging of exogenous and endogenous HClO/ClO– in living HeLa cells, zebrafish, and mice with high signal-to-noise ratios. S-BODIPY allows for the real-time monitoring the level of ClO– in living cells by ratiometric fluorescence imaging, opening up exciting prospects to develop red and even near-infrared BODIPYs with high brightness and good photostability for in vivo imaging.