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Evaluation of five additives to mitigate toxicity of cryoprotective agents on porcine chondrocytes
- Wu, Kezhou, Laouar, Leila, Dong, Rachael, Elliott, Janet A.W., Jomha, Nadr M.
- Cryobiology 2019 v.88 pp. 98-105
- additives, antioxidants, ascorbic acid, cartilage, cell viability, chondrocytes, chondroitin sulfate, cryopreservation, cryoprotectants, cytotoxicity, glucosamine, oxidation, pyrazines, swine, tissue banks, viability assays, vitrification
- Cryoprotective agents (CPAs) are used in cryopreservation protocols to achieve vitrification. However, the high CPA concentrations required to vitrify a tissue such as articular cartilage are a major drawback due to their cellular toxicity. Oxidation is one factor related to CPA toxicity to cells and tissues. Addition of antioxidants has proven to be beneficial to cell survival and cellular functions after cryopreservation. Investigation of additives for mitigating cellular CPA toxicity will aid in developing successful cryopreservation protocols. The current work shows that antioxidant additives can reduce the toxic effect of CPAs on porcine chondrocytes. Our findings showed that chondroitin sulphate, glucosamine, 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine and ascorbic acid improved chondrocyte cell survival after exposure to high concentrations of CPAs according to a live-dead cell viability assay. In addition, similar results were seen when additives were added during CPA removal and articular cartilage sample incubation post CPA exposure. Furthermore, we found that incubation of articular cartilage in the presence of additives for 2 days improved chondrocyte recovery compared with those incubated for 4 days. The current results indicated that the inclusion of antioxidant additives during exposure to high concentrations of CPAs is beneficial to chondrocyte survival and recovery in porcine articular cartilage and provided knowledge to improve vitrification protocols for tissue banking of articular cartilage.