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Nerve-mediated expression of histone deacetylases regulates limb regeneration in axolotls

Wang, Mu-Hui, Wu, Cheng-Han, Huang, Ting-Yu, Sung, Hung-Wei, Chiou, Ling-Ling, Lin, Shau-Ping, Lee, Hsuan-Shu
Developmental biology 2019 v.449 no.2 pp. 122-131
amphibians, amputation, enzyme inhibition, histone deacetylase, juveniles, larvae, limbs (animal), nerve tissue, tissue repair
Axolotls have amazing abilities to regenerate their lost limbs. Nerve and wound epidermis have great impacts on this regeneration. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been shown to play roles in the regeneration of amphibian tails and limbs. In this study, a bi-phasic up-regulation of HDAC1 was noted before early differentiation stage of axolotl limb regeneration. Limb regeneration was delayed in larvae incubated with an HDAC inhibitor MS-275. Local injection of MS-275 or TSA, another HDAC inhibitor, into amputation sites of the juveniles did not interfere with wound healing but more profoundly inhibited local HDAC activities and blastema formation/limb regeneration. Elevation of HDAC1 expression was more apparent in wound epidermis than in mesenchyme. Prior denervation prohibited this elevation and limb regeneration. Supplementation of nerve factors BMP7, FGF2, and FGF8 in the stump ends after amputation on denervated limbs not only enabled HDAC1 up-regulation but also led to more extent of limb regeneration. In conclusion, nerve-mediated HDAC1 expression is required for blastema formation and limb regeneration.