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Biomonitoring of bisphenols A, F, S in human milk and probabilistic risk assessment for breastfed infants

Dualde, Pablo, Pardo, Olga, Corpas-Burgos, Francisca, Kuligowski, Julia, Gormaz, María, Vento, Máximo, Pastor, Agustín, Yusà, Vicent
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.668 pp. 797-805
acceptable daily intake, average daily intake, bisphenol F, breast feeding, breast milk, environmental monitoring, geometry, infants, milk, mothers, personal care products, probabilistic risk assessment, risk, Spain
The present study addresses the presence of bisphenols A (BPA) and its analogs bisphenol F (BPF) and S (BPS) in milk of 120 mothers living in Valencia (Spain) and participating in the BETTERMILK project (year 2015). We also studied the factors that could influence the BPA levels and estimated the exposure and the risk for breast fed infants. The frequency of detection of total (conjugated + unconjugated) and unconjugated-BPA were 83% and 77%, with a geometric mean of 0.29 ng/mL and 0.15 ng/mL, respectively. The frequency of detection was much lower for total-BPF (22%) and total-BPS (1.1%).The place of residence of the mother and the use of personal care products showed significant association with BPA concentrations. The estimated daily intake of total-BPA for breastfed infants amounted to a geometric mean of 0.04 μg/kg bw and a 95th percentile of 1.0 μg/kg bw, below the tolerable daily intake of 4 μg/kg bw-day established by EFSA. To our knowledge, this is the largest biomonitoring study of bisphenols in human milk in Europe.