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Tailoring enzyme microenvironment: State-of-the-art strategy to fulfill the quest for efficient bio-catalysis

Bilal, Muhammad, Cui, Jiandong, Iqbal, Hafiz M.N.
International journal of biological macromolecules 2019 v.130 pp. 186-196
biocatalysis, biocatalysts, biosynthesis, biotransformation, cost effectiveness, engineering, functional properties, immobilized enzymes, industrial applications, momentum, protein engineering, solvents, substrate specificity, temperature
Enzymes as green industrial biocatalysts have become a powerful norm that offers several advantages over traditional catalytic agents with regard to process efficiency, reusability, sustainability, and overall cost-effective ratio. However, enzymes obtained from natural origins are often engineered/tailored since their native forms do not fulfill the acute need for the industrial application. Revolutionary developments in protein engineering provide excellent opportunities for designing and constructing novel industrial biocatalysts with improved functional properties including catalytic activity, stability, substrate specificity, and reaction product inhibition. Momentum in enzyme immobilization has enabled robustness and optimal functions in extreme industrial environments, such as high temperature or organic solvents. The emergence of multi-enzyme catalytic cascade based on a combination of biocatalysts presents multifarious opportunities in biosynthesis, biocatalysis, and biotransformation. This review focuses on the emerging and state-of-the-art enzyme engineering trends and approaches to constructing innovative nano- and microstructured biocatalysts with enhanced catalytic activity and stability features requisite for industrial exploitation. Continuous key developments in this direction together with protein engineering in unique ways might offer ever-increasing opportunities for future biocatalysis-based industrial bioprocesses.