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Co-encapsulation of imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin using biocompatible nanocarriers: Characterization and application

Graily Moradi, Fatemeh, Hejazi, Mir Jalil, Hamishehkar, Hamed, Enayati, Ahmad Ali
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2019 v.175 pp. 155-163
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Myzus persicae, adjuvants, biodegradability, chitosan, encapsulation, environmental protection, ethanol, imidacloprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, light scattering, lipids, nanocarriers, nanoparticles, pest resistance, residual effects, scanning electron microscopes, scanning electron microscopy
A well-known strategy for managing pest resistance is application of mixture of pesticides. Conventionally formulated pesticides have several environmental incompatibilities. The use of biocompatible and biodegradable nanocarriers in formulating pesticides could improve environmental protection. In this study, a mixture of imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin was co-encapsulated for the first time using liposomes as nanocarrier to simultaneously deliver these insecticides. Ethanol injection was used to produce self-assembled liposomes. The formed nanoliposomes were coated with different concentrations of chitosan. Nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and FT-IR spectroscopy. The encapsulation efficiencies of lambda-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid were about 93% and 51%, respectively. The insecticide carrying liposomes had a size and surface charge of 57 nm and +0.6 mV, respectively. The size and surface charge of the particles produced were increased to 69 nm and +31 mV after being coated with chitosan (0.1%, W/V). In this study, residual activity of technical grade imidacloprid, lambda-cyhalothrin and their mixture and the effect of adjuvants used in commercial and nano formulations of these insecticides on Myzus persicae Sulzer was investigated. The insecticidal effects and duration of residual activity of nano-formulations was correlated with concentration of chitosan in final formulation. In accordance with the life cycle of M. persicae, using the mixture of imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin improves the residual effect over their use alone. The use of lipid nanocarriers makes the improvement even further and can be a better alternative to conventional combination of these insecticides due to their more environmental friendliness.