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Gamma irradiation protect the developing wheat endosperm from oxidative damage by balancing the trade-off between the defence network and grains quality

Kumar, Ranjeet R., Hasija, Sumedha, Goswami, Suneha, Tasleem, Mohd., Sakhare, Akshay, Kumar, Sudhir, Bakshi, Suman, Jambhulkar, Sanjay, Rai, Gyanendra K., Singh, Bhupinder, Singh, Gyanendra P., Pathak, Himanshu, Viswanathan, Chinnusamy, Praveen, Shelly
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2019 v.174 pp. 637-648
alpha-amylase, amylose, endosperm, enzyme activity, gamma radiation, genes, gliadin, heat stress, hydrogen peroxide, messenger RNA, metabolism, nutrient density, seeds, superoxide dismutase, wheat
Gamma irradiation has been reported to modulate the biochemical and molecular parameters associated with the tolerance of plant species under biotic/ abiotic stress. Wheat is highly sensitive to heat stress (HS), as evident from the decrease in the quantity and quality of the total grains. Here, we studied the effect of pre-treatment of wheat dry seeds with different doses of gamma irradiation (0.20, 0.25 and 0.30 kGy) on tolerance level and quality of developing wheat endospermic tissue under HS (38 °C, 1 h; continuously for three days). Expression analysis of genes associated with defence and starch metabolism in developing grains showed maximum transcripts of HSP17 (in response to 0.25 kGy + HS) and AGPase (under 0.30 kGy), as compared to control. Gamma irradiation was observed to balance the accumulation of H2O2 by enhancing the activities of SOD and GPx in both the cvs. under HS. Gamma irradiation was observed to stabilize the synthesis of starch and amylose by regulating the activities of AGPase, SSS and α-amylase under HS. The appearance of isoforms of gliadins (α, β, γ, ω) were observed more in gamma irradiated seeds (0.20 kGy), as compared to control. Gamma irradiation (0.25 kGy in HD3118 & 0.20 kGy in HD3086) was observed to have positive effect on the width, length and test seed weight of the grains under HS. The information generated in present investigation provides easy, cheap and user-friendly technology to mitigate the effect of terminal HS on the grain-development process of wheat along with development of robust seeds with high nutrient density.