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Bioconcentration and biotransformation of organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Tang, Bin, Poma, Giulia, Bastiaensen, Michiel, Yin, Shan-Shan, Luo, Xiao-Jun, Mai, Bi-Xian, Covaci, Adrian
Environment international 2019 v.126 pp. 512-522
Cyprinus carpio, bioaccumulation factor, biotransformation, blood serum, esters, fish, flame retardants, hydrophobicity, hydroxylation, intestines, liver, metabolism, metabolites, phosphates, tissue distribution, tissues, toxicity, xenobiotics
Understanding the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of xenobiotic compounds is critical for evaluating their fate and potential toxicity in vivo. In the present study, the tissue specific accumulation and depuration of seven organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated after exposing the fish to an environmental relevant level of PFRs. The log Kₒw of PFRs was significantly negatively correlated to the percentages of individual PFRs to the total PFRs in serum (p < 0.04), whereas significantly positive correlations were observed in all other tissues (p < 0.02). Significant correlations (p < 0.01) between the log Kₒw of PFRs and their log bioconcentration factor (BCFww) were also found in all investigated tissues except for serum. This suggests that the hydrophobicity of PFRs played a significant role in the distribution and body compartment accumulation of PFRs in common carp. The bioaccumulation potential of PFRs in serum was different from the other tissues, probably due to its specific properties. Dialkyl and/or diaryl phosphate esters (DAP) and hydroxylated PFRs (HO-PFRs) were quantified as the major metabolites. Their levels in liver and intestine were significantly higher than in other tissues. Biotransformation processes also played a crucial role in the accumulation of PFRs in fish. Our results provide critical information for further understanding the bioconcentration, tissue distribution and metabolism of PFRs in fish.