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Fullerene C60 nanomaterial induced oxidative imbalance in gonads of the freshwater fish, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792)

Sumi, N., Chitra, K.C.
Aquatic toxicology 2019 v.210 pp. 196-206
Anabas testudineus, animal ovaries, antioxidant activity, aquatic environment, catalase, enzyme activity, freshwater fish, fullerene, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-disulfide reductase, gonadosomatic index, histology, histopathology, hydrogen peroxide, lethal concentration 50, lipid peroxidation, risk factors, superoxide dismutase, testes, tissues
The engineered carbon nanomaterial, fullerene C60, with unique physicochemical properties, released into the aquatic environment is known to formulate high risk factor for the aquatic life. The present study was aimed to investigate fullerene C60 induced oxidative imbalance in ovary and testis of the freshwater fish, Anabas testudineus. The median lethal concentration (96 h-LC50) of fullerene C60 in Anabas testudineus was 50 mg/ L, and fish exposed to two sublethal concentrations i.e., 5 mg/ L and 10 mg/ L (one-tenth and one-fifth of LC50) for short-term (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) and long-term (7, 15, 30 and 60 d) durations. The antioxidant parameters such as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, the levels of hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation were analyzed along with histopathological alterations in gonadal tissues. Both sublethal concentrations of fullerene C60 caused significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, whereas the levels of hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation increased significantly (P < 0.05) in gonads. Fullerene exposure significantly (P < 0.05) increased the mucous deposition with significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the weights of gonads and gonado-somatic index. The histopathological analysis showed prominent alterations in testis and ovary of treated fishes when compared to the control groups. After 60 d of sublethal exposure of fullerene C60, fish were left in the toxicant-free water for another 60 d, in which the changes in the activities of the gonadal antioxidant enzymes and histological alterations were not completely recovered. Hence, from the present study, it was illustrated that fullerene C60 caused oxidative imbalance in the gonads, which may possibly affect the reproductive potential of the fish, Anabas testudineus.