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High CD8 T cell percentage and HCV replication control are common features in HIV-1 controllers and HTLV-2-co-infected patients with a history of injection drug use

Ruiz-Mateos, Ezequiel, Ruiz-León, María J., Tarancón-Díez, Laura, Gutiérrez, Carolina, Dronda, Fernando, Domínguez-Molina, Beatriz, Pérez-Elías, María J., Moreno, Ana, Leal, Manuel, Moreno, Santiago, Vallejo, Alejandro
Virus research 2019 v.264 pp. 40-44
CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, CD8-positive T-lymphocytes, HIV infections, Human immunodeficiency virus 1, Primate T-lymphotropic virus 2, RNA, adults, antibodies, controllers, cross-sectional studies, gender, genotype, hospitals, multivariate analysis, patients, virus replication
HTLV-2/HIV-1-coinfected patients and HIV-infected patients with natural HIV-1 control show an immune capacity that allows some control of viral infections. These two groups of patients have showed an immune capacity that allows them to have some control over viral infections, very strong control of HIV-1 replication in the case of HIV-1 controllers. The purpose of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to compare viral and immunologic parameters between three cohorts of Caucasian adult HIV-1-infected patients, including HIV-1 controllers (29 patients), HTLV-2/HIV-1 chronic progressors (56 patients), and HIV-1 chronic progressors (101 patients), followed in two different tertiary University Hospitals in Spain.Demographic parameters, nadir CD4 T cell count, CD4 and CD8 T cell counts and percentage, anti-HCV antibodies, HCV RNA load, HCV genotype, HIV-1 RNA loads, and anti-HTLV-2 antibodies were analyzed. HIV-1 controllers and HTLV-2/HIV-1 chronic progressors were younger and with shorter time since HIV-1 diagnosis compared to HIV-1 chronic progressors. HIV-1 controllers and HTLV-2/HIV-1 chronic progressors had significantly higher CD8 T cell percentage (p = 0.002 and p = 0.016, respectively) and lower levels of HCV RNA loads (0.015 and 0.007, respectively) compared to that of HIV-1 chronic progressors. Multivariate analyses showed that gender and HTLV-2 infection were independently associated to HCV RNA load, while only HTLV-2 infection was independently associated to CD8 T cell percentage. The implication of HTLV-2 infection in the control of HIV-1 and HCV infections is worth being further analyze.