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Beyond Migration: Causes and Consequences of Nomadic Animal Movements
- Teitelbaum, Claire S., Mueller, Thomas
- Trends in ecology & evolution 2019
- animals, ecosystems, migratory behavior
- Recent advances in animal tracking reveal that many species display irregular movements that do not fall into classical categories of movement patterns such as range residency or migration. Here, we develop a unifying framework that distinguishes these nomadic movements based on their patterns, drivers, and mechanisms. Though they occur in diverse taxa and geographic regions, nomadic movements are united by both their underlying environmental drivers, mainly environmental stochasticity, and the resulting irregular, far-ranging movement patterns. The framework further classifies types of nomadic movements, including full, seasonal, phase, irruptive, and partial nomadism. Nomadic movements can have unique effects on populations, communities, and ecosystems, most notably providing intermittent disturbances and novel introductions of propagules.