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The effects of pulsed electric fields on the quality parameters of freeze-dried apples

Lammerskitten, Alica, Wiktor, Artur, Siemer, Claudia, Toepfl, Stefan, Mykhailyk, Viacheslav, Gondek, Ewa, Rybak, Katarzyna, Witrowa-Rajchert, Dorota, Parniakov, Oleksii
Journal of food engineering 2019 v.252 pp. 36-43
acoustic properties, antioxidant activity, apples, brittleness, color, electric field, freeze drying, hardness, phenolic compounds, pulsed electric fields, shrinkage, specific energy, temperature, texture, water content
In this study, the impact of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on the final quality of freeze-dried apples was investigated. The PEF treatment has been performed at an electric field intensity equal to 1.07 kV/cm and a specific energy input of 0.5, 1 and 5 kJ/kg. The samples were freeze-dried (without a separate pre-freezing step) at varying temperatures (set on 40 °C and 60 °C) and pressures (0.1, 0.25 and 1 mbar). The quality of dried material was evaluated by the analysis of residual moisture content, macro- and microscopic properties, colour, the total content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity as well as texture and acoustic properties. It was found that the residual moisture content of PEF treated samples was reduced by up to ∼82% in comparison to the intact tissue. For electroporated samples, a good preservation of macro-shape, an inhibition of shrinkage and the development of large pores were observed. The PEF treated material exhibited a higher total phenolic content, but a smaller antioxidant activity. Mechanical and acoustic analysis showed a higher crunchiness and brittleness for PEF-treated tissue, whereas untreated tissue was characterised by a harder and rather crackly texture.