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Cross-linking of diluted alkali-soluble pectin from apple (Malus domestica fruit) in different acid-base conditions

Gawkowska, Diana, Cieśla, Jolanta, Zdunek, Artur, Cybulska, Justyna
Food hydrocolloids 2019 v.92 pp. 285-292
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Malus domestica, apples, crosslinking, dissociation, electrostatic interactions, fruits, galacturonic acid, hydrocolloids, mica, moieties, pH, pectins, sodium carbonate
A diluted alkali-soluble pectin (DASP) fraction, extracted using sodium carbonate, is characterized by a low degree of methylesterification and has the ability to self-organize on mica. The aim of this study was to characterize the cross-linking process of this fraction, extracted from apples, over a wide pH range (3-11) and without the addition of salt. An FT-IR study showed an increase in the intensity of bands connected with νas and νs (COO−) and a decrease in the intensity of the band associated with ν (C=O) in the carboxyl group with increasing pH, which indicated the dissociation of the carboxyl groups of galacturonic acid units. An increase in the surface electrical charge of particles in the pH range of 3–7 confirmed this. The value of the average apparent dissociation constant (∼4.60) indicated the acidic character of the DASP fraction. An AFM study showed the morphological changes of the DASP fraction with increasing pH, which allowed for the evaluation of the cross-linking process. This fraction formed a network on mica at pH 4 and 9, while the aggregates were noted mainly at pH 11. For totally ionized carboxyl groups (pH 7), the pectin chains were separated from each other due to the electrostatic repulsion between them.