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Treatment of 3,3′-dimethoxybenzidine in sludge by advance oxidation process: Degradation products and toxicity evaluation

Liang, Jieying, Ning, Xun-an, Song, Jian, Lu, Xingwen, Sun, Jian, Zhang, Yaping
Journal of environmental management 2019 v.238 pp. 102-109
Desmodesmus, Vibrio fischeri, algae, bacteria, benzoic acid, fabrics, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography, microstructure, nitrophenols, oxidation, pollutants, potassium permanganate, sludge, sulfates, tandem mass spectrometry, total organic carbon, toxicity
Studies on the oxidation products of organic pollutants and their toxicity in textile dyeing sludge after the sludge was treated by the advance oxidation processes were limited, since textile dyeing sludge was a complicated mixture. For the first time, simulated sludge was used to study the degradation mechanism of 3,3′-dimethoxybenzidine (DMB) during the combined ultrasound-Mn(VII) treatment. The toxicity of DMB and its products was also evaluated. The results indicated that the compositions and microstructures of polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and polyferric sulphate (PFS)-based simulated sludge were similar to those of real textile dyeing sludge. The optimum conditions of ultrasound-Mn(VII) treatment were: a KMnO4 dosage of 40 μM, an ultrasound power density of 0.36 W cm−3, and a reaction time of 20 min. 98.24% of DMB and 63.04% of total organic carbon (TOC) in the simulated sludge were removed. Six products, that is, 2-nitroanisole, 3-methoxy-4-nitrophenol, vanillylmandelic acid, vanillyl alcohol, m-anisic acid, and benzoic acid, were identified by GC-MS and LC-MS-MS. It was noted that all of these identified products were also detected in the real textile dyeing sludge after the ultrasound-Mn(VII) treatment. All of them were less toxic than DMB. Moreover, 53.30% and 54.80% of toxicity toward the alga Desmodesmus subspicatus and the bacterium Vibrio fischeri were removed in simulated sludge, respectively. Therefore, simulated sludge was helpful for studying a pollutant's degradation mechanism in the complex sludge mixtures. The results would also provide some useful suggestions for the sludge disposal after the sludge was treated by the advance oxidation processes.