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KOH-super activated carbon from biomass waste: Insights into the paracetamol adsorption mechanism and thermal regeneration cycles
- Spessato, Lucas, Bedin, Karen C., Cazetta, André L., Souza, Isis P.A.F., Duarte, Vitor A., Crespo, Lucas H.S., Silva, Marcela C., Pontes, Rodrigo M., Almeida, Vitor C.
- Journal of hazardous materials 2019 v.371 pp. 499-505
- X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, acetaminophen, activated carbon, adsorption, aqueous solutions, biomass, nitrogen, oxygen, wastes
- A super activated carbon (SAC) was produced by KOH-activation of a biomass waste for paracetamol (PCT) adsorption from aqueous solution and for adsorption-thermal regeneration cycles. The SAC and the regenerated SAC after five adsorption-regeneration cycles (RSAC-5th) were fully characterized by several techniques. The N2 physisorption showed that the SBET values of the SAC and RSAC-5th are remarkably different, being 2794 m² g−1 and 889 m² g−1, respectively. The XPS analysis demonstrated that the SAC surface is composed by oxygen containing-groups, whilst the RSAC-5th also presents nitrogen ones, provenient from the PCT molecules. The adsorption studies revealed that the maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) for the SAC (356.22 mg g−1) is higher than that for RSAC-5th (113.69 mg g−1). Also, the results demonstrated that the PCT adsorption is governed by both physisorption and chemisorption and the ab initio calculations showed the chemisorption mainly occurs in carboxylic groups.