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Quantum bead-based fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay for ultrasensitive detection of aflatoxin M1 in pasteurized milk, yogurt, and milk powder

Zhou, Yaofeng, Xiong, Sicheng, Zhang, KangKang, Feng, Lin, Chen, Xuelan, Wu, Yuhao, Huang, Xiaolin, Xiong, Yonghua
Journal of dairy science 2019 v.102 no.5 pp. 3985-3993
aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin M1, antigens, binding capacity, cross reaction, dried milk, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fluorescence, horseradish, monitoring, monoclonal antibodies, pH, pasteurized milk, quantum dots, sodium chloride, yogurt
Herein, we reported a novel direct competitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (dcFLISA) for the ultrasensitive detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in pasteurized milk, yogurt, and milk powder using 150-nm quantum dot beads (QB) as the carrier of competing antigen. Large QB were applied to decrease the binding affinity of the competing antigen to antibody and enhance the fluorescent signal intensity. The aflatoxin B1 molecule was used as the surrogate of AFM1 to label with BSA on the surface of QB because of its 63% cross reaction to anti-AFM1 mAb. The binding affinity of the competing antigen to mAb was tuned by changing the labeled molar ratios of aflatoxin B1 to BSA. Through combining the advantages of QB as the carrier of the competing antigen, including low binding affinity to mAb and highly fluorescent signal output, the proposed dcFLISA exhibited an ultrahigh sensitivity for AFM1 detection, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 3.15 pg/mL in 0.01 M phosphate-buffered saline solution (pH 7.4), which is substantially lower than that of the traditional horseradish peroxidase-based ELISA. The proposed method also exhibited very low detection limitations of 0.5, 0.6, and 0.72 pg/mL for real pasteurized milk, yogurt, and milk powder, respectively. These values are considerably below the maximum permissible level of the European Commission standard for AFM1 in dairy products. In summary, the proposed dcFLISA offers a novel strategy with an ultrahigh sensitivity for the routine monitoring of AFM1 in various dairy products.