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Searching for a bisphenol A substitute: Effects of bisphenols on catalase molecules and human red blood cells
- Zhang, Xun, Li, Chao, Pan, Jie, Liu, Rutao, Cao, Zhaozhen
- The Science of the total environment 2019 v.669 pp. 112-119
- adenosinetriphosphatase, antioxidant activity, bisphenol A, bisphenol B, bisphenol F, bisphenol S, catalase, enzyme activity, erythrocytes, glutathione peroxidase, hemoglobin, hemolysis, human health, humans, manufacturing, safety assessment, toxicity
- Some countries are limiting the use of BPA. To meet the challenge of finding a suitable alternative requires safety assessments of the common analogs of BPA. Bisphenol S (BPS), Bisphenol F (BPF) and Bisphenol B (BPB) are increasingly used as substitutes and the aim of this study is to assess their human health implications. By comparing the effects on hemoglobin spectroscopically, the least toxic possibility is using BPB as a substitute for BPA. In this paper, the effects of BPS, BPF and BPB on catalase were compared at the molecular level and the same result was found. To further enhance our understanding of BPB, the impact of BPB on antioxidant defense system, structure (hemolysis rate) and function (ATPase activity) of red blood cell (RBCs) were analyzed at the cellular level. It has been found that low concentrations (below 0.1 μM) of BPB slightly increased the activity of T-AOC (112.7%), GST (118.4%) and T-SOD (131.8%) while high concentrations decreased the activity of T-AOC (90.2%), T-SOD (67.8%), GST (74.7%) and GSH-Px (61.7%). It also has been shown that BPB had little effect on MDA (100%–101.6%) and CAT activity (100%–100.5%) with reduced activity of ATPase (100%–27.7%). In conclusion, BPB may possibly be used as the BPA substitute in the manufacture, and the concentration of BPB should be controlled within 1 μM.