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PM2.5- and PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the residential area near coal-fired power and steelmaking plants of Taichung City, Taiwan: In vitro-based health risk and source identification
- Zhu, Jinning, Hsu, Chin-Yu, Chou, Wei-Chun, Chen, Mu-Jean, Chen, Jyh-Larng, Yang, Tzu-Ting, Wu, Yuh-Shen, Chen, Yu-Cheng
- The Science of the total environment 2019 v.670 pp. 439-447
- adults, children, coal, combustion, cooking fats and oils, in vitro studies, industry, particulate emissions, particulates, petroleum, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, power plants, principal component analysis, probabilistic models, residential areas, risk, screening, seasonal variation, spatial variation, steel, summer, toxicity, wind direction, wind power, winter, Taiwan
- We investigated spatial and season variations in particle-bound PAH concentrations, identified their potential sources and estimated resultant health risk of activate toxicity pathways in a residential area near coal-fired power and steelmaking plants. Both atmospheric PM2.5 and PM10 samples (n = 94) were simultaneously collected for summer and winter in the Wuqi and Shalu districts of Taichung City, central Taiwan. The principal component analysis (PCA) measure was used to evaluate the sources of particle-bound PAHs. The health risk of PAHs-activated toxicity pathways was estimated through a probabilistic model in cooperation with high-throughput screening (HTS) in vitro assays and measurement data for children and adults. No spatial difference, but significant seasonal variation, in PAH concentrations for PM2.5 (summer = 1.7 ng m−3 and winter = 4.7 ng m−3) and PM10 (summer = 2.1 ng m−3 and winter = 4.8 ng m−3) between two sites was observed, where both sites shared the similar PAH patterns in congener concentrations. PAH contents in the fine mode (PM2.5) of ambient particles are predominant while coarse mode (PM2.5–10) PAHs is negligible. Children with particle-bound PAH exposures have a relatively high health risk of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated adverse outcomes than adults, in particular in the winter period, while the activations of Nrf2 and p53 pathways are insignificant. Vehicle emission (67.1%), unburned petroleum (15.0%), steel industry and stationary emission (6.1%), and oil combustion + cooking oil fume (5.6%) associated with PM2.5-bound PAHs were apportioned. The emission from the Taichung coal-fired power plant is rarely attributable to particle-bound PAHs of the study area based on results of spatiotemporal variation of PAHs, wind direction, and source apportionment.