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Agro-industrial residues as a unique support in a sand filter to enhance the bioactivity to remove microcystin-Leucine aRginine and organics

Kumar, Pratik, Rubio, Heidi Dayana Pascagaza, Hegde, Krishnamoorthy, Brar, Satinder Kaur, Cledon, Maximiliano, Kermanshahi-pour, Azadeh, Sauvé, Sébastien, Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey, Galvez-Cloutier, Rosa
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.670 pp. 971-981
Arthrobacter ramosus, Chryseobacterium, Ensifer meliloti, Pseudomonas fragi, ammonia, arginine, bacterial communities, coliform bacteria, deinking, denitrification, drinking water, drinking water treatment, filtration, guidelines, hemp, metals, microcystin-LR, nitrates, nitrification, nitrites, organic carbon, paper pulp, sand, sand filters, sludge, total suspended solids, toxicity, water quality
In the past, the versatility of a biosand filter has been successfully checked to counter suspended solids, metals, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), coliforms and other water quality parameters (WQPs) from the drinking water sources. In this study, cyanotoxin in the form of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) along with above-mentioned WQPs including nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia are analyzed for their removal using agro-residue based biosand filters (ARSFs) for 49 days (7 cycles). Three different agro-residue materials (ARMs) viz. deinking sludge (DSF), hemp fiber (HFF) and paper-pulp dry sludge (PPF) were used as the support material (top 5 cm) along with sand (49 cm) as the primary filter media to enhance the overall bioactivity. This enhancement in bioactivity is hypothesized to remove more MC-LR, DOC, coliform along with efficient nitrification/denitrification. Native bacterial community isolated from the filtration unit of a drinking water treatment plant (Chryseobacterium sp. and Pseudomonas fragi = X) along with the MC-LR-degrader: Arthrobacter ramosus (which was screened as the best biofilm-former among two other MC-LR-degraders tested) were used to inoculate the filters (all three ARSFs). Overall, DSF performed the best among all the ARSFs when compared to the sand filter (SFI) inoculated with the same bacterial strains (A + X). An increase in the bioactivity for ARSFs, particularly DSF was evident from the DOC removal (44 ± 11%, 15% more than SFI), coliform removal (92.7 ± 12.8%, 24% more than SFI), MC-LR removal (87 ± 14%, 13% more than SFI) and an effective nitrification/denitrification, reducing ammonia, nitrate and nitrite level to below guideline values. Toxic assessment using bioindicator (Rhizobium meliloti) revealed safe filter water only in case of DSF.