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Accelerating effects of humin on sulfide-mediated azo dye reduction
- Liu, Guangfei, Zhu, Jiaqi, Jin, Ruofei, Zhou, Jiti, Gao, Zhanming, Wang, Jing
- Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2019 v.175 pp. 102-109
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, azo dyes, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, humic acids, humin, iron, moieties, paddy soils, pollutants, quinones, Wyoming
- As an important fraction of humic substances, humin has been found capable of stimulating bioreduction reactions. However, whether humin could promote abiotic reduction and the effects of coexisting soluble humic substance and insoluble mineral remained unsolved. In this study, a humin sample was isolated from a paddy soil. Cyclic voltammetry, electron paramagnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of the humin indicated the existence of redox-active quinone moieties and other oxygen-containing groups. The humin could be reduced by sulfide and its presence stimulated the abiotic reduction of acid red 27 (AR27) and four other azo dyes by sulfide. In the presence of 100–1000 mg/L intact humin, the sulfide-mediated AR27 reduction efficiency in 7 d was enhanced from 56.3% to 92.5%. The stimulating behavior of intact humin was observed for 100–300 mg/L AR27 and increased with the increase of sulfide concentration (1.2–3.0 mM). Much higher stimulating effects were found with the presence of humin pre-reduced by sulfide. Moreover, for sulfide-mediated AR27 reduction, the coexistence of humin (500 mg/L) and humic acid (10–30 mg/L) or Wyoming sodium-montmorillonite (SWy-2, 1–4 g/L) led to better promotion activities than the presence of single component. And synergistic promotion of sulfide-mediated AR27 reduction was observed with coexisting humin and SWy-2 due to enhanced Fe(II) production. These findings extended our understanding of the influence of humin on reductive transformation of pollutants in the environment.