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Structure-based investigation on the association between perfluoroalkyl acids exposure and both gestational diabetes mellitus and glucose homeostasis in pregnant women

Liu, Xin, Zhang, Lei, Chen, Liangkai, Li, Jingguang, Wang, Yuxin, Wang, Jun, Meng, Guimin, Chi, Min, Zhao, Yunfeng, Chen, Hongbing, Wu, Yongning
Environment international 2019 v.127 pp. 85-93
blood serum, carbon, case-control studies, environmental monitoring, gestational diabetes, glucose, homeostasis, humans, isomers, moieties, odds ratio, perfluoroalkyl acids, perfluorocarbons, pregnancy, pregnant women, regression analysis, risk, sulfonates, China
Biomonitoring studies have shown the presence of structurally diverse perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in humans but only a few studies are available regarding the differential structural effects of PFAAs on human health.The specific association between different structural PFAAs and both gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and glucose homeostasis in pregnant women was investigated.A prospective nested case-control study including 439 women was conducted during 2013–2015 in Beijing, China. First trimester maternal serum was collected and analyzed for 25 diverse PFAAs with varying carbon chain lengths, linear/branched isomers and carboxylate or sulfonate functional groups. The analyzed PFAAs were grouped into different exposure variables depending on structure characteristics. GDM cases were diagnosed at 24–28 weeks of gestation and individually matched in a 1:2 ratio to controls. Conditional logistic and linear regression was used to evaluate the association between structurally grouped PFAAs and both GDM risk and glucose homeostasis parameters.Among the 25 PFAAs, 12 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and 8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) were detected in >55.0% of samples and were respectively grouped into different structural groups. The structural-based effect was observed for PFCAs, where short-chain (C4-C7) PFCAs continuous level was significantly associated with GDM with an estimated odds ratio (OR) of 1.99 (95% CI: 1.29, 3.09), and the multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of GDM for increasing tertiles of short-chain PFCAs were 1.00 (ref.), 1.82 (0.80, 4.16) and 3.01 (1.31, 6.94), P trend = 0.011. Additionally, increased concentration of short-chain PFCAs was significantly associated with higher postprandial glucose levels (P < 0.05). Non-significant association was observed between structure grouped PFSAs and GDM as well as glucose homeostasis.This investigation suggests a structure-specific association between short-chain PFCAs exposure and both GDM risk and impaired glucose homeostasis in pregnant women. These findings warrant further investigation with larger samples and a wide range of short-chain PFCAs exposure.