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Deep‐sea hydrothermal vent metagenome‐assembled genomes provide insight into the phylum Nanoarchaeota

St. John, Emily, Flores, Gilberto E., Meneghin, Jennifer, Reysenbach, Anna‐Louise
Environmental microbiology reports 2019 v.11 no.2 pp. 262-270
Archaea, adenosine triphosphate, amino acids, basins, flagellum, gene editing, genes, genetic markers, gluconeogenesis, glycolysis, hosts, pentoses
Ectosymbiotic Nanoarchaeota live on the surface of diverse archaeal hosts. Despite being broadly distributed in global geothermal systems, only three Nanoarchaeota have been successfully co‐cultivated with their hosts, and until now no nanoarchaeotal cultures or genomes have been described from deep‐sea hydrothermal vents. We recovered three nanoarchaeotal metagenome‐assembled genomes (MAGs) from deep‐sea hydrothermal vent sites at the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (M10‐121), Guaymas Basin (Gua‐46) and the Mid‐Cayman Rise (MC‐1). Based on average amino acid identity analysis, M10‐121 is a novel species in the candidate genus Nanoclepta, while the other two MAGs represent novel genera in the Nanoarchaeota. Like previously sequenced Nanoarchaeota, each MAG encodes at least one split protein‐coding gene. The MAGs also contain a mosaic of key nanoarchaeotal features, including CRISPR repeat regions and marker genes for gluconeogenesis and archaeal flagella. MC‐1 also encodes the pentose bisphosphate pathway, which may allow the nanoarchaeote to bypass several steps in glycolysis and produce ATP.